Ethan Winer On Music Theory

Hey guise.

Ethan made a few videos on music theory and I wanted to share.

Interestingly, knowledge of theory is partly what held me back from releasing music this week ūüôĀ

However, don’t be put off of learning theory because I say that.

I started learning theory to transcend the genre-specific limits I was experiencing so many years ago. ¬†Now I’m eating at the Old Country Buffet equivalent of music at the YouTube booth. ¬†Bad metaphor? ¬†Nah!

I’m definitely still working on music but I also have the 100 YouTube subscribers video getting made. ¬†It’s a milestone and in the video I’m making I plan to commemorate the event by doing 100 pushups (in sets of 10 ’cause I’m not a beast like that – moreover spread out over several days) tied into 10 hard-learned lessons of a life on the outside.

Whoa, Hexspa chill bra.

For real tho. ¬†I’ve been a random so long that I’m not sure I could ever integrate into “normal people” life. ¬†The good news is that I’ve learned a lot about time management and getting stuff done when, on one hand, I have no boss but, on the other, homelessness is just a mistake away.

If that doesn’t have you eager to watch idk what will. ¬†But, until then, you can watch Ethan’s stuff. ¬†It’s really good even if you know about music. ¬†I know how us music folk like hearing what we already know. ¬†L O L

I linked to the YouTube version above for two reasons: 1. I get credit for sending traffic to YouTube afaik and 2. the Vimeo version wouldn’t generate a thumbnail. ¬†Here are the links (video 1 not available on YT):

If you feel like picking up the New Harvard Dictionary of Music (shown in the video) you can do so by clicking here.

And, since this video series was supposed to be a part of his book, The Audio Expert, you can support Ethan Winer (and me) by buying the book on Amazon by clicking on the title.

Thanks for reading. ¬†Sincerely sorry I couldn’t get a track up this week. ¬†Take comfort in knowing I’m doing my best and, when I do get something up, it’ll be the best I can offer.

See you soon,



How To K-System

Pink noise.

Hey guys.  I just want to make a quick post reflecting the content of this video.

Essentially, the K system has been blown way out of proportion in terms of it’s complexity.

It is nothing more than simply using pink noise to set your room’s volume level.

Pink noise approximates music but without dynamics.

You’ll need an SPL meter, any pink noise file, a RMS or EBU-R128 loudness meter and a DAW.

Import the noise, set it to -20dBFS RMS or -20LUFS integrated.

Turn on your SPL meter, place it at your listening position and set it to C weighted, slow response. ¬†You’ll be aiming for a dBC level of about 72-76dB. ¬†Pick any level and stick with it for now.

Turn just one monitor on and play the noise. ¬†Turn up the volume until it’s at your target dBC value. ¬†Repeat for other speaker. ¬†Sub can be on.

Boom, you’re at K20. ¬†It’s useful for mixing and correlates roughly to 0dBVU.

In order to do K14, and from there you can figure out any other scale, just turn the noise UP in your DAW to -14dBFS RMS/LUFS.  Compensate by turning down your monitors until you hit your dBC target value.

The whole idea is that you want to be listening at the same volume no matter how hot the signal is in your computer.

The main secret is to keep everything consistent – your levels but also the pink noise file you use, your SPL meter, your listening position and your loudness meter.

Hope this was helpful. ¬†Let me know if you have any questions. ¬†Consider supporting Hexspa on Patreon. ¬†I’m focused on music right now so I’ll probably be doing less tutorials.


How How To Write Amazing Second Verses ‚Äď Escape From Second Verse Hell ‚Äď Pt. 3

Fellow songwriters – it’s time to unpack your baggage!

Welcome to the third installment of Escaping From Second Verse Hell. ¬†Check parts one and two to get up to speed. ¬†This week we’re going to deal with the problem that happens when you don’t give enough detail. ¬†If you’re more of the Cliff’s Notes-type writer then this week’s info is for you.

This tip is not in Pat Pattison’s material at all as far as I know but I still recommend his book Writing Better Lyrics. ¬†You can click the link to read what other writers think about it.

Week one’s tip was pertinent when you write a decent verse but in it you tell the song’s whole story. ¬†In that case you just put that verse second and then write another verse before it to set the scene.

Week two dealt with “boxes” and how to include your character’s deeper motivations into a sequence that builds momentum.

Now we’re going to learn how to add detail and emotional weight to a verse that might be a little light in the heart and mind department.

In my YouTube video that corresponds to this article (check it out here)¬†I gave an example of a verse that reads like a plot outline. ¬†Then I use a technique I learned by analyzing how the greats write. ¬†What they do is write a line and then immediately follow it up with a supporting line. ¬†Let’s take a look at the opening lines from Sting’s “Fortress Around Your Heart”

Under the ruins of a walled city

Crumbling towers in beams of yellow light

No flags of truce, no cries of pity

The siege guns have been pounding through the night

What I see here is two lines that set up ideas and two lines that support it. ¬†Line 1 zooms you in to a ruined city from wherever you’re sitting. ¬†Line 2 gives details about the former. ¬†Line 3 introduces a human element, through negation, which contrasts the inanimate nature of dead walls and line 4 gives a positive sense of action and immediate history – but, critically, relating directly to line 3.

If you wanna get really fancy you can bake the supporting line into the second half of each of your lines. ¬†Take a look at “You’ve Lost That Lovin’ Feelin'” as performed by The Righteous Brothers:

You never close your eyes anymore when I kiss your lips
And there’s no tenderness like before in your fingertips

I left black the words that tie those two halves together. ¬†Incidentally the black words deal with time, the red words negate the presence of something and the blue corresponds to the parts of the body. ¬†In any case you can see how there’s a wind up and a pitch.

You could also say that the whole first line is red and the whole second line is blue but I’m arguing that the detail is built into the line. ¬†Regardless, these two songs do not read like a outline – they have detail, take their time and make you feel something without being overly verbose.

As a side note, know that they’re showing you what’s going on with the use of concrete imagery. ¬†Sting isn’t saying, “Man, when I love girls I’m so possessive.” He’s showing you the world in which that feeling lives. ¬†Phil Spector wasn’t saying, “My old lady’s left!” ¬†He’s talking to her and giving details which prove it. ¬†That’s a whole ‘nother article.

Anyway guys I hope that was helpful. ¬†Make sure you’re following up your new information with some supporting detail. ¬†Be sure to check out parts one and two and check back here every week for new Hexspa updates.

I’m going to be on Patreon soon so if you like what I’m doing please consider going over there to check me out since I’ll have some awesome exclusives for your contribution. ¬†Also check out Writing Better Lyrics if you want to work on your writing in earnest.

See you next week,



How To Write Amazing Second Verses – Escape From Second Verse Hell – Pt. 2

Writing songs can leave you with a trapped feeling. ¬†Often you’re alone with no one to ask for assistance. ¬†It’s like being an elderly person who has fallen and whose Life Alert has just run out of batteries. ¬†This claustrophobic feeling is like being in a box.

Wait a minute. ¬†We’re going to talk about boxes today! ¬†Damn, I’m getting good at writing these intros.

Hey everyone. ¬†Welcome back to Escape From Second Verse Hell. ¬†You can check out Part 1 – Second Verse First¬†¬†if you haven’t. ¬†Today we’re discussing a technique used for song development called “boxes”.

This method is espoused by Pat Pattison in his free Coursera course called Songwriting: Writing the Lyrics. ¬†It’s not in his book Writing Better Lyrics although the two are very complimentary to one another.

How it works is this: when you have a problem developing your story you draw three boxes, one bigger than the other. ¬†In your bottom box (the biggest one) you put your why; why is the main character saying these things? ¬†Remember that it’s your character’s why – not yours as a songwriter. ¬†This why should be the foundational resonance of your song. ¬†In your second box you put how the song ends. ¬†This one is typically easiest for most people since the first thing they write tends to tell the whole story. ¬†The top box is how you’ll start the song off.

Now there’s no hard and fast rule that your first box has to be any less dramatic or interesting than your second box. ¬†You still need somewhere to go though. ¬†So if you start your song out gunning then you might want to later tell the audience that your character is on a vengeance mission because his dad was murdered. ¬†Check out this graphic:

Boxes rock.

You might think, “Why do we have a why in the bottom box instead of a beginning-middle-end format?” ¬†Good question. ¬†Your middle can go between box one and two. ¬†It’s important to state your deepest message into the song though so, by resolving that into your why, you’re guaranteed to make use of the third box that way.

I hope this is clear guys. ¬†This has been the most helpful songwriting technique I’ve come across. ¬†I used to struggle with verse development. ¬†I really had no idea what verses did nor how they affected the chorus; at least not in any conscious way. ¬†There are a ton of popular songs which have little-to-no verse development. ¬†Despite that, once you realize how effective proper pacing can be there’s no going back.

If you guys want to improve your writing then I recommend picking up Pat’s book, Writing Better Lyrics. ¬†Spending a little time reading that before you start scribbling out couplets can really make the time you put into the craft more rewarding.

Thanks for reading. ¬†I’ve got some new songs I’ll be posting soon. ¬†Let me know if this was helpful and what you’d like to see from me in the future.

I’ll see you guys next week.


How To Write Amazing Second Verses – Escape From Second Verse Hell – Pt. 1

Second verse –¬†a curse worse than a¬†burnt MRSA in your bursa?

In his book, Writing Better Lyrics, Pat Pattison says that one of the biggest challenges songwriters face is the second verse curse.  This could apply to any creative person whose art uses time: filmmakers, authors, instrumentalists and others.  I want to explore some of his ideas in one place so we can fix this disease once and for all.

Most writers make the most intense idea the first thing they jot down. ¬†That’s fine but to kick off this series on Writing Amazing Second Verses I want to utilize our natural foibles and turn them into assets. ¬†This week we’ll use the technique of Writing The Second Verse First.

It’s a common strategy, really: ¬†“Begin with the end in mind.” The Secret, visualization and perhaps other techniques use this. ¬†Or maybe you’re familiar with the mixing trick of starting with the loudest, or most important, part of the song and then working backwards. ¬†Similar to sewing a pillow, you don’t initially work on the part everyone sees first.

What I’m saying is that, since we pour our hearts out without a second thought – and that can be scary to some people (I should know), you need to first extend your hand before anyone can see your heart on your sleeve.

Whatever you write first will actually go later in the song. ¬†Let’s look at an example:

In my video I use the impromptu lines:

Melting into your eyes

Halo white at the altar

That just popped off the top of my head. ¬†It’s not necessarily a good way to start a song. ¬†Where would I go from there – the divorce? ¬†Maybe we should talk about the first time our character saw their love interest:

Trembling under my book

Hunting woman is stalking

So now we’re at the library. ¬†The guy is reading, a hot chick walks in and he’s got a choice to make. ¬†Since we’ve started with the second verse we know he’s going to talk to her. ¬†All you’ve got to do is connect the dots from here – the path is clear!

So go forth, young poet, and poureth out thine soul. ¬†Just be sure to add a preamble and you’ll be good to go.

I really recommend Pat’s book Writing Better Lyrics. ¬†It’s helped me immensely. ¬†He also has a free course on Coursera which is a great supplement to the book’s content.

Thanks for reading guys. ¬†Please pick up that book as it helps me and it will certainly help you. ¬†Besides, if you follow along with my articles it’ll help to have that as a reference – like a textbook. ¬†Check out my video on this topic on YouTube, subscribe there if you haven’t and have a wonderful fuckin’ day ūüôā


5 Reasons To Pick One Musical Key

Too many keys make door stay closed.

-Chinese Proverb (not really)

Depending on your level of involvement with music, you’ve at least heard about musical keys. ¬†I don’t mean your piano. ¬†I don’t mean the makeshift percussion in your pocket (or are you just happy to see me). ¬†I mean the restful sound of the (typically) last note or chord played in a song. ¬†That peaceful ending called the resolution.

If you know nothing about theory, I recommend this book:
Harmony And Theory For Musicians.

Did you know there are twelve basic keys; minor and modal versions notwithstanding?  What the hell are you supposed to do with them all?

There are a few basic reasons people pick keys. ¬†One is out of negligence – that’s just the key they wrote the song in or the only key in which they know how to play. ¬†Another is instrument-specific. ¬†Some instruments, including the human voice, sound better in one key over another due to how their registers output timbre. ¬†Or, if you’re an EDM artist, maybe you want your sub to sit in a certain range between 30-50Hz; the right key will help you there. ¬†A less common reason to pick one key over another is due to it’s inherent absolute quality i.e. for people with “perfect pitch”. ¬†I’m told A major sounds brighter than Eb major, for instance.

However, there are certain advantages to sticking to just one musical key for your composing, performing and audio work. ¬†I’d like to give you five right now.

5 Reasons To Stick To One Musical Key

  1.  Your writing will improve.
    Writing. It improves.

    This is if you do ear training. ¬†Some ear training advice is to play intervals and chords in all keys. ¬†I think this is advanced advice. ¬†What I suggest you do, and what’s helped me, is just pick one key. ¬†Pick one in which you can comfortably sing; or at least vocalize. ¬†Singing what you’re trying to hear is building another neural pathway. ¬†“As they say, if you can sing it, you can hear it.” ¬†What is the purpose of ear training? ¬†To write and perform better. ¬†The better you can hear the qualities, and hence emotions, of musical elements the better you can evoke those feelings in listeners. ¬†So do your ear training in one key only and you’ll be on your way to better melodies and chord progressions.

  2. Your playing will improve.
    If you sound as good as she looks..

    Naturally, if you walk to school or drive to work down the same route every day, repetition will make you more efficient. ¬†The first day you’re distracted by the novel stimuli. ¬†After awhile you start to zone out and before you know it you’ve arrived at your destination. ¬†Similarly, if you’re playing the same chords and scales on your instrument (or programming them in your DAW) you’ll become quicker and better at establishing what you’re trying to say. ¬†In contrast, if you’re always in a new key, constant technical variation takes mental resources that could be better spent being musical. ¬†During woodshedding or experimentation, playing in different keys is great. ¬†When you’re trying to increase efficiency in communicating an idea, simplified repetition is best.

  3. You’ll sing better.
    The key to a beautiful voice.

    I know not everyone is a singer. ¬†But like I mentioned above, singing is an important part of being a musician. ¬†Just because you have no ambition for being a front person or an American Idol contestant doesn’t mean your vocal cords are redundant. ¬†Singing helps you to internalize the sound of music. ¬†Alternatively, if you are a singer, having a home base key that you’re very familiar with is a great start. ¬†Having a home key should go hand-in-hand with knowing your range, fach and stylistic preferences. ¬†By doing so, you’ll be able to decide which key in which to perform as to bring out, not only the best in your voice, the best in the song and the feeling of the listener. ¬†This is way better than randomly guessing where to transpose a song based on the popular version of it or from where it was written.

  4. Your creativity will blossom.
    Become the special  poppy you were meant to be.

    In some ways it might seem that autopilot-like efficiency would be the opposite of creativity. ¬†That would be true if it wasn’t for our ability to recognize contrast and get bored. ¬†They say animals never get bored. ¬†Well, you’re a special type of animal my friend. ¬†By doing the same thing all the time, you’ll start to seek out new ways of doing them. ¬†This is especially true of creative type people. ¬†Always staying in one key necessarily limits your options. ¬†Cliche time: limitations breed creativity. ¬†You should always be looking for ways to limit yourself when creating. ¬†Given that most instruments only have so many places to play a C chord, finding various¬†articulations becomes the challenge. ¬†Listen to a band like Steely Dan and watch for the ways they bring back repeated parts; there’s almost always some subtle variation. ¬†They don’t radically change the part they just make subtle alterations to hold interest and portray development. ¬†By always using the same chords you’ll eventually think of new ways to utilize them.

  5. You’ll be more self-reliant.
    Learning theory is somewhat like this.

    I don’t know how far back it goes, probably before Punk, but theory hate has always been around. ¬†Believe it or not, when I started play guitar I used to think chords were for pussies. ¬†I literally thought that. ¬†I could not conceive that Metallica would use fucking chords. ¬†It wasn’t until I started playing “Master of Puppets” that my retarded view was eviscerated by the very first musical event of the song. ¬†Granted, it’s more of an extended interval (root-fifth-root power chord) ¬†but it was still multiple notes played at once. ¬†I eventually realized that almost all music, in some way, is, or can be made to be, polyphonic and layered in harmonies. ¬†Therein lies the problem – comprehension. ¬†There’s only 12 notes but I’ll be damned if they aren’t put to some creative use. ¬†Understanding progressions, resolutions, modulations and all that Jazz is taught at University level for a reason. ¬†By sticking to one key, you’ll be forced to transpose eventually. ¬†Transposition means, unless your ear is fantastic which, if you don’t do ear training and hence know theory, it’s probably not, knowing roman numeral analysis. ¬†It means knowing accidentals, intervals and every other thing theory entails. ¬†It’s way more than knowing the white keys make a C major scale. ¬†By going so deep into the muck of theory, you won’t have to ask your older, more knowledgeable, bandmate for answers anymore. ¬†Especially for EDM guys, who seem to hate theory the most, this is critical. ¬†EDM people typically produce alone. ¬†Who you going to ask at 3am on a Tuesday which note fits with what and how to make it resolve without sounding like shit? ¬†If you’ve been playing awhile, this might no longer be an issue. ¬†I’d be damn surprised, though, if these types of problems don’t crop up in every writing musician’s life more than once – at least for almost a decade. ¬†So ya, it might seem ironic but, sticking to one key will improve your theory tenfold.

I have to give credit where it’s due. ¬†There’s another site which proposed this idea first. ¬†Since I’ve implemented it, I’ve reaped the former benefits. ¬†The one thing I didn’t mention in my video was that, even for audio-based musicians, remaining in one key is great especially if you use harmonic EQ. ¬†If you don’t know what that is then hmu and I’ll make a video on it.

Thanks for watching and reading. ¬†I hope it was helpful. ¬†Please sub on YouTube, share with your friends and I’ll see you next week.



Open G Minor Tuning Guitar Lesson

Slide, slide, slide it in.

Ok, so we won’t be playing any slip n’ slide or slide guitar today but I got reason to be so slick. ¬†Open tunings are used in Blues, often with a slide, to make certain sounds more accessible and to distinguish one guitar player from another. ¬†Typical tunings are open A major and open G major. ¬†We’re not going to discuss either of those today! ¬†I got open G minor for you. ¬†The only difference between open G major and open G minor is that the B string (second string) is detuned one half step.

The reason I’ve been tuning to open G minor is because I’m writing all my new material in Bb major. ¬†I might use other modal keys like C dorian etc. but staying in one key has several advantages over just picking whatever key whenever. ¬†I’ve already shot a video on what those advantages are so look out for that to go public in the next few weeks. ¬†The great thing about open G minor is that any open string will be in the key of Bb so no weird notes for being lazy.

If you want to brush up on open major tunings ala your favorite Blues artists then here are some of the guys with songs that use open A or open G:

Robert Johnson
Come On In My Kitchen” – Open A, with capo on first fret
Cross Road Blues” – Open A, with capo on second fret
Walkin’ Blues” – Open A, with capo on second fret
Love In Vain” – Open G

Muddy Waters
Can’t Be Satisfied” – Open G
Rollin’ and Tumblin’” – Open G

The Rolling Stones
Honky Tonk Women” – Open G
Brown Sugar” – Open G
Tumbling Dice” – Open G, with capo on fourth fret

Now that you’re hip to your roots and got the Blues in your boots let me hit you with the seven diatonic chords you’ll need to get started playing in this tunage.

Bb (Imaj):

Bb in third position

Cm (IImi):

Cmi in fifth position

Dmi/b3 (IIImi):

Dmi/F in second position

Eb/5 (IVmaj):

Eb/5 in third position

Gmi (VImi):

Gmi in third position

Ami7b5 (VIIdim):

Ami7b5 in first position

There you have it. ¬†Open G minor tuning. ¬†It’s unusual but useful. ¬†If you’ve got a lower voice or are looking for something different this is a nice tuning to play with. ¬†If you’re more of a C type player then just move all those chords up a whole step (two frets) and you’ll be able to play your beloved “Mary Had A Little Lamb” in it’s original key (actually I linked you to the cool one). ¬†As a bonus, you’ll be playing in the middle of the fretboard where the guitar is best intonated.

Check out my YouTube video on this topic, let me know what you think and I’ll see you next week.



FLOW 16 – Arrival (Break Beats 4)

Not another flow video *facepalm*

I realize this flow series is not my most popular to date. ¬†This is the last one I’ll post until I can improve it. ¬†If you have any suggestions, let me know.

I’m working on a video (series?) showing how I use my mixcube. ¬†I’m going to set up a linear omni and create/mix a 4 bar loop. ¬†You’ll be able to see and hear me switch between my speakers. ¬†This should help you if you’re interested in buying a mixcube or if you already have one. ¬†It’ll be similar to a flow video but I’ll put a cam on my face and we should get some better audio.

If you enjoy these flow videos, let me know. ¬†I’m currently preparing to start my third mix (“Lightbulb”) for the upcoming Uncomfortable EP pt.2. ¬†You can check out pt. 1 here. ¬†I figure it takes me about three weeks to finish a mix so I’ll need four videos minimum in the chamber before I start.

Like always, thanks for reading and watching. ¬†Let me know what you’d like to see from me in the future, sub on YouTube if you haven’t and I’ll see you next week ūüôā



Maple Enemata (8BE)

I feel like such a shitbag.

I made this track almost two weeks ago and I didn’t even make a post about it. Getting my YouTube channel and this blog working together is something that’s going to take time. I hope you appreciate the effort ūüôā

This song was made to help diminish the virgin population. Actually I made it to test out my new Ableton mixing template. I’ve been watching alot of Andrew Scheps videos and wanted to implement some of his ideas.

He uses a lot of parallel compression. I was using that before but not in the same way he does. He likes to group different types of musical elements together and compress them as interworking systems. For example, not only is he not insert compressing individual snares, he’ll take the kick and the snare and compress them in parallel as one. There are other tricks I hope to go into in another post.

This song has some of that parallel compression going on but it was also used to test between Sonimus Satson and Airwindows Console4. ¬†These are console emulation plugins which are supposed to help your mixes sound more analog. ¬†I’m not really sure what that means but those effects do have an impact on the end result. ¬†You can check out my shootout of them here.

The last feature I want to mention is the way I wrote the chords. ¬†I did it deadmau5 style where I just drew them in instead of trying to play them. ¬†This method helped me come up with something I ordinarily wouldn’t play.

Hope you guys like it.